Glossary


Accident - an undesired event that results in harm to people, damage to property, loss to process, or harm to the environment.

Activated carbon - chemically treated and heated carbon which has the ability to absorb gold.

Alteration - the physical or chemical change in the composition of rock.

Arsenopyrite - iron arsenic sulphide, FeAsS.

Backfill - waste rock or tailings used to fill mined out areas, particularly underground.

Basalt - dark colored, fine-grained volcanic igneous rock.

Base metal - non-ferrous metals inferior in value to precious metals; i.e. copper lead, zinc, nickel.

Bedrock - solid rock beneath superficial soil cover and unconsolidated sediments.

Belt - an exposed zone or band of a particular kind of rock.

Bioxidation - the oxidation of elements caused by naturally occurring bio-organisms in rock. Bioxidation is used in the recovery of gold from sulhpide rock by providing the optimum temperature, acidity (pH) and oxygen levels for the natural oxidation process to work most effectively.

Breccia - rock consisting of angular fragments in a finer-grained matrix.

By-product - revenue, net of transportation, refining and treatment charges, from the sale of metals derived in conjunction with the production of the primary mine metal.

Carbon-in-leach (CIL) - a process to recover dissolved gold onto activated carbon, by introducing activated carbon into a gold-cyanide slurry during the agitation process and subsequently separating the loaded carbon from the slurry for the removal of the gold.

Carbon-in-pulp (CIP) - a process to recover dissolved gold onto activated carbon, by introducing activated carbon into the system after the gold has been dissolved by the cyanide solution and subsequently separating the loaded carbon from the slurry for the removal of the gold.

Chlorite - platey iron-magnesium silicate, typically formed during alteration by other minerals at low temperatures.

Contractor - any non-Newmont employee or group working for an operation and who are regularly exposed to mine hazards.

Cut-and-fill - a mining method which removes ore in horizontal slices and the remaining void is filled with waste rock before proceeding to mine the next slice of ore.

Cut-off grade - the lowest grade of mineralized material considered to be economic and used to calculate the ore reserve in a deposit.

Cyanide-leaching - dissolving gold or silver in a weak solution of sodium cyanide or potassium cyanide.

Dip - the angle of incline from horizontal of a planar feature, such as an orebody.

Disseminated ore - ore bearing small particles of valuable minerals spread throughout the rock.

Dolerite - intrusive dyke rock made up mostly of feldspar and pyroxene.

Doré - unrefined gold and silver bars usually containing more than 90 percent precious metal.

Drift-and-fill - an underground mining method whereby ore is mined by drifting along the mineralization and backfilling the void so that the next level can be mined.

Dyke - an igneous intrusion which cuts across the bedding of other planar structures in the country rock.

Erosion - the alteration, loosening and removal of land surface material by the actions of running water and wind.

Exposure hours - the total number of hours worked at the operation.

Extrusive - igneous rock which has been erupted to the surface by volcanic activity.

Facies - distinctive rock type.

Fatality - death of an individual as a result of a work related accident or illness.

Fault - a break in the sub-surface strata where there is displacement relative to the original position of strata.

Feasibility study - a comprehensive study undertaken to determine the economic feasibility of a project; the conclusion will determine if a production decision can be made and is used for financing arrangements.

First aid - all work related injury or illness that does not require medical attention.

Flotation - a process by which some mineral particles are induced, by the introduction of specific reagents, to become attached to bubbles and float while other particles sink; the valuable minerals are concentrated and separated from the gaunge.

Fold - a bend in rock strata.

Formation - a unit of geological mapping, consisting of a large and persistent stratum of rock.

Gabbro - coarse-grained igneous rock containing minor silica.

Gold equivalent - gold plus silver expressed in equivalent ounces of gold using a conversion ratio dependent on prevailing gold and silver prices.

grade - the amount of valuable material in a specific volume of rock; typically expressed as grams per tonne for precious metals and as a percentage for base metals.

Granophyric - an igneous texture characterized by irregular intergrowths of quartz and feldspar.

Gravity separation - recovery of gold from crushed rock using gold's high specific gravity to separate it from lighter material.

greenstone - metamorphosed mafic igneous rock which is typically green due to content of chlorite, actinolite, etc.

Headframe - the framework building at the top of the shaft which houses the hoisting mechanisms.

Hedging - the effective offsetting of a price or exchange risk inherent in another transaction or arrangement.

Host rock - the rock containing minerals; eg an orebody.

Hydrometallurgy - the selective dissolution of metals from ore to concentrates.

Hydrothermal - pertaining to heated water which transports minerals in solution.

Incident - an undesired event which under slightly different circumstances could result in harm to people, damage to property, loss to process, or harm to the environment.

ISO 9000 - international standards for organizations to implement quality management systems and quality assurance programs.

ISO 14000 - international standards for organizations to implement sound environmental management systems.

Infill drilling - drilling between previously drilled holes to provide additional geological information to more accurately define mineralization.

Lag - coarse gravel material remaining behind when finer material has been eroded away.

Lava - molten magma extruded from volcanic vent.

Lost time injury (LTI) - the number of lost time injuries multiplied by 200,000 and divided by the total number of exposure hours.

Lost time injury incident rate (LTA) - all work related injuries or illnesses where the employee cannot work the next regular scheduled shift.

Mafic - igneous rock with dark coloration due to high magnesium and iron content.

Medical injury - any injury that requires treatment by a licensed medical professional that does not result in lost time or restricted duty but is beyond first aid.

Merrill-Crowe - a precipitation process to recover precious metals from a cyanide solution using zinc dust.

Metasediments - metamorphosed sedimentary rocks.

Metasomatism - the process by which one mineral is replaced by another.

Mill - the plant for grinding ore to a fine powder and extracting the economic metals by physical and/or chemical means.

Mineralized zone - host rock in which minerals of potential commercial value occur.

Net smelter return (NSR) - a share of the net revenue generated from the sale of metal produced by the mine.

Open pit - a mine on the surface.

Ore - a mixture of minerals, host rock and waste rock which is expected to be profitably mined.
Ounces -weight of gold with a fineness of 999.9 parts per 1,000; 1 Troy ounce is equal to 31.1034 grams.

Outcrop - part of a geological formation or structure that appears at the surface of the earth.

Oxidation - chemical reaction between any substance and oxygen.

Oxide ore -mineralized rock in which the minerals have been partially or wholly oxidized by weathering processes.

Porphyry - igneous rocks containing large crystals in a fine-grained groundmass.

Pressure oxidation - an oxidation process which uses high temperature and pressure to convert refractory sulphide mineralization into amenable oxide ore.

Process loss - any unplanned interruption or downgrading of operating processes resulting from an accident, abuse, negligence, or act of God.

Production cost - cash cost plus depreciation, amortization and reclamation.

property damage - damage occurring to property through an accident, abuse, negligence, or act of God.

Pyrite - an iron sulphide, FeS.

Pyrrhotite - an iron sulphide, FeS.

Raise - a vertical or upward inclined drive to connect underground mine levels or to the surface.

Reagent - a chemical used in the mineral recovery process.

Reclamation - the rehabilitation to beneficial use of land disturbed by mining activity.

Refractory ore - gold mineralization encapsulated in silica or sulphide, which is not amenable to cyanide leaching methods.

Reserve - that part of a resource that can be profitably mined under current or specified economic conditions. A reserve estimate must consider all technical, operating, legal and financial factors.

Reserve - proven - the estimated quantity and grade of part of a measured resource for which all consideration factors establish the highest degree of confidence in the estimate.

Reserve - probable - the estimated quantity and grade of part of a indicated resource for which all consideration factors establish a confidence level for positive decisions on major expenditures.

Resource - the grade and quantity estimate of a mineralized deposit that indicates mining is currently or potentially profitable under economic and operating conditions.

Resource - measured - the estimated grade and quantity for that part of a deposit configuration which has been very well established by observation, sampling, drilling trenches and mine workings.

Resource - indicated - the estimated grade and quantity for that part of a deposit for which grade continuity, shape and extent has been established for reliable grade and tonnage estimation.

Resource - inferred - the estimated grade and quantity determined from limited sampling but sufficient geological information and understanding to outline a deposit of potential economic merit.

Restricted duty injury - all work related injuries or illnesses that result in the employee not being able to perform 100% of normal duties, whether scheduled to or not.

Room-and-pillar - mining method used for flat-lying deposits where the ore is removed in chambers or rooms leaving pillars for support.

Schist - fine-grained metamorphic rock with laminations similar to slate.

Severity measure - the number of days lost, plus the number of days of restricted duty, multiplied by 200,000 and divided by the number of exposure hours

Shaft - a vertical passage in an underground mine used for transporting personnel, equipment, supplies and mined material.

Silicic alteration - replacement of silica.

Spot price - current price of gold or other commodity traded in the immediate market  .

Stockwork - a 3-dimensional network of veins or veinlets.

Stope - the working area from which ore is extracted in an underground mine.

Strike - the direction or bearing of a mineralized vein or rock formation.

Stripping ratio - the ratio of the amount of waste rock removed per tonne of ore mined.

Sulfide - a mineral compound characterized by the linkage of sulfur with metal or semimetal; eg galena, PbS, or pyrite, FeS2.

Syncline - a fold of strata forming an inverted arch.

Tailings - material rejected from a treatment plant after the valuable minerals have been recovered.

Telluride - a mineral characterized by the linkage of metal with tellurium.

Tholeiitic - basaltic magma containing little or no olivine.

Thm - Total Heavy Mineral fraction by mass, as derived from the sinks fraction of a heavy liquid separation test procedure, using Tetra-bromo-ethane (TBE) with a density of 2.95 or Bromoform with a density of 2.85.

Titanium - The ninth most abundant element in the earth's crust and occurs naturally as TiO2 in a number of minerals, those of greatest commercial importance being Ilmenite, Leucoxene and Rutile. Approximately 95% of titanium is consumed in the form of titanium dioxide (TiO2), an intensely white permanent pigment with good covering power in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics. Paints made with titanium dioxide are excellent reflectors of infrared radiation and are therefore used extensively by astronomers and in exterior paints. It is also used in cement, in gemstones, and as a strengthening filler in paper.

Because of its very high tensile strength (even at high temperatures), light weight (43% lighter than steel), extraordinary corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand extreme temperatures, titanium alloys are principally used in aircraft, armour plating, naval ships, spacecraft and missiles. It is used in steel alloys to reduce grain size and as a deoxidiser but in stainless steel it is employed to reduce carbon content. Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum and with other metals.

Its vanadium alloy is used to make the outer skin of aircraft, to make fire walls, landing gear, and hydraulic tubing. A typical commercial jet airplane contains 320 to 1130 kg of titanium. Use of titanium in consumer products such as golf clubs, bicycles, laboratory equipment, wedding bands, and laptop computers is becoming more common.

Titanium Dioxide - White powder used as pigment or filler for its high covering power, durability and stability in ultra-violet light and opacity in coatings, plastics, and paper.

Tonne - Metric Tonne or long ton. Equals 1000 kg or 2204 lbs.

Total days lost - the total number of days an employee was scheduled to work but was unable to as a result of a work related injury or illness.

Total days restricted - the total number of days an employee cannot do any of a part of normal work activities but does not result in lost time.

Total reportable injury incident rate - the number of medical injuries, plus the number of restricted duty injuries, plus the number of lost time injuries, plus. the number of fatalities, multiplied by 200,000 and divided by the total number of exposure hours

Tuff - strata of volcanic ash.

Turbidite - a marine clastic sediment deposited by sea bed currents laden with suspended material.

Ultrabasic - igneous rock with very low silica content.

Wall rock - the rock mass adjacent to a fault, fault zone or lode.

Weathered zone - near surface zone in which the exposed rock has been chemically or physically changed due to the action of rain, water, etc.